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A Connection wraps an SDK or API and provides an interface to network, ledgers and other services. As such a connection is concerned with I/O bound and continuously connected operations. Where necessary, a connection is responsible for translating between the framework specific protocol (an Envelope with its contained Message) and the external service or third-party protocol (e.g. HTTP).

The messages constructed or received by a connection are eventually processed by one or several skills which deal with handling and generating messages related to a specific business objective.

The framework provides one default connection, called stub. It implements an I/O reader and writer to send messages to the agent from a local file. Additional connections can be added as packages.

An AEA can interact with multiple connections at the same time via the Multiplexer.

Multiplexer of an AEA

It maintains an InBox and OutBox, which are, respectively, queues for incoming and outgoing envelopes and their contained messages.


The connection.yaml file of a connection package contains meta information on the connection as well as all the required configuration details. For more details have a look here

Developing your own

The easiest way to get started developing your own connection is by using the scaffold command:

aea scaffold connection my_new_connection

This will scaffold a connection package called my_new_connection with three files:

  •, containing the scaffolded connection class
  • connection.yaml, containing the scaffolded configuration file

Primary methods to develop

The scaffolded file contains a single class inherited from the Connection base class.

The developer needs to implement four public coroutines:

  • The connect coroutine implements the setup logic required to be performed for the connection when it is initially launched. The connect coroutine is called by the AEA framework once when the agent is being started.

  • The disconnect coroutine implements the teardown logic required to be performed for the connection when it is eventually stopped. The disconnect coroutine is called by the AEA framework once when the agent is being stopped.

  • The send coroutine is called by the AEA framework each time when the Multiplexer handles an outgoing envelope specified to be handled by the connection. The send coroutine must implement the processing of the envelope leaving the agent.

  • The receive coroutine is continuously called by the AEA framework. It either returns None or an envelope. The receive coroutine must implement the logic of data being received by the agent and if necessary its translation into a relevant protocol.

When developing your own connection you might benefit from inspecting the fetchai/http_server:0.15.0 and fetchai/http_client:0.16.0 connections to gain more familiarity and inspiration.

Configuration options

The connection.yaml files contains a number of fields required to be edited by the developer of the connection:

connections: []
protocols: []
class_name: MyScaffoldConnection
  foo: bar
excluded_protocols: []
restricted_to_protocols: []
dependencies: {}
is_abstract: false
cert_requests: []
  • connections specifies the list of other connection this connection depends on
  • protocols specifies the list of protocols this connection depends on
  • class_name needs to match the name of the connection class in
  • config can contain arbitrary configuration information which is available in the constructor of the connection
  • excluded_protocols lists the protocols which cannot be used in this connection
  • restricted_to_protocols lists the protocols which this connection is restricted to be used by
  • dependencies lists any Python dependencies of the package
  • is_abstract specifies whether this connection is only used as an abstract base class
  • cert_requests lists certification requests of the connection (see proof of representation for details)